Ubwunganizi

Kuba TPIR na TPIY ari inkiko zageze ku bintu bishimishije kandi zikaba zizewe, zibikesha cyane uruhare rukomeye rw’ubwunganizi butajegajega kandi bushoboye akazi mu guharanira uburenganzira bw’abaregwa bwo kuburanishwa mu buryo buboneye no mu gushimangira ihame risaba ko Prokireri n’Ubwunganizi bahabwa uburyo bungana mu rubanza.

Uburenganzira bwo kuburanishwa mu buryo buboneye ni uburenganzira bwa muntu bw’ibanze n’ihame ry’ibanze ry’ubutabera mpanabyaha. Ubwo burenganzira ni bwo buhabwa abantu baregwa muri MICT izakomeza ububasha, uburenganzira, inshingano n’imirimo y’ingenzi ya TPIR na TPIY.

Ubwunganizi bushoboye akazi kandi butajegajega butuma amahanga arushaho kubona ko MICT yakwizerwa kandi ifite akamaro.

Uburenganzira bwo kugira avoka wunganira uregwa

Abantu bose barezwe na TPIR, TPIY cyangwa MICT kandi baburanishwa na MICT, kimwe n’abantu bafunzwe bagengwa na MICT, bafite uburenganzira bwo kunganirwa n’avoka. Iyo uregwa yifuza kunganirwa n’avoka, ashobora kumwishakira cyangwa, mu gihe Gerefiye abonye ko adafite ubushobozi bwo kumwihembera, agahabwa avoka uhembwa na MICT. Ubu burenganzira bw’uregwa hamwe n’ubundi bw’ibanze bugenerwa abaregwa bukubiye mu Ngingo ya 19 ya Sitati ya MICT kandi buteganywa n’Amategeko Agenga Imiburanishirize n’Itangwa ry’Ibimenyetso ndetse n’Amabwiriza yerekeye ishyirwaho ry’avoka wunganira uregwa, kugira ngo uregwa ahabwe inkunga imugirira akamaro yo mu rwego rwo hejuru rushoboka mu by’amategeko.

Ibyiciro bitatu by’abavoka bunganira abaregwa

Amategeko Agenga Imiburanishirize n’Itangwa ry’Ibimenyetso ya MICT ateganya ibyiciro bitatu by’abavoka bunganira abaregwa:

  1. Abavoka bashyizweho hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 42: abanyamategeko bihitiwemo n’ukekwaho icyaha cyangwa n’uregwa kugira ngo bamuburanire muri MICT.
  2. Abavoka bashyizweho hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 43(B): abanyamategeko bagaragaje ko bafite umwanya kandi ko bifuza ko Gerefiye yabemerera guhagararira uregwa udafite ubushobozi bwo kubihembera kandi bakaba barashyizwe kuri risiti iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43.
  3. Abavoka b’agateganyo bateganywa mu Ngingo ya 43(C): abanyamategeko bashyizweho hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 43(B) kandi bari kuri risiti y’abavoka bafite umwanya kandi bifuza kunganira uregwa mu gihe yitabye abacamanza bwa mbere (risiti y’abavoka b’agateganyo).

Ibyangombwa bisabwa

Nk’uko biteganywa na Sitati, Amategeko, Amabwiriza n’Amategeko yerekeye imyitwarire mu kazi, abavoka bunganira abaregwa bagomba kuba bujuje ibisabwa mbere y’uko batoranywa cyangwa bashyirwaho kugira ngo bunganire uregwa.

Avoka watoranyijwe hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 42 agomba kuba yujuje ibisabwa bikurikira:

  • Kuba yemerewe gukora imirimo y’avoka mu gihugu iki n’iki cyangwa ari umwarimu wigisha amategeko muri kaminuza;
  • Kuba avuga kandi yandika neza rumwe mu ndimi zombi zikoreshwa muri MICT *;
  • Kuba ari umunyamuryango w’ishyirahamwe ryemewe ry’abavoka baburanira abantu muri MICT kandi atarifitemo ikibazo **;
  • Kuba atarahamijwe icyaha mu manza zirebana na disipuline mu rwego rw’igihugu cyangwa mpuzamahanga, cyangwa atarigeze ahamwa n'icyaha hashingiwe ku abwiriza ya MICT yerekeye imyitwarire y’abavoka ku kazi;
  • Kuba atarahamwe n’icyaha mu manza nshinjabyaha;
  • Kuba mu kazi cyangwa ahandi mu mibereho ye, atarishoye mu buriganya cyangwa mu myitwarire itesha agaciro umurimo w’avoka, bibangamira imigendekere myiza y’ubutabera, bishobora kumunga icyizere rubanda bafitiye MICT cyangwa migendekere myiza y’ubutabera, cyangwa bishobora gusiga ibara MICT; no
  • Kuba ataratanze amakuru y’ikinyoma ku mashuri yize no ku bushobozi bwe bwo gukora umwuga w’abavoka cyangwa ko nta makuru afite akamaro yirengaije gutanga.

Abavoka bashyizweho hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 43(B) bagomba kuzuza ibisabwa by’inyongera bikurikira (risiti iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43):

  • Kugira ubushobozi mu by’amategeko muri ibi bikurikira cyangwa bimwe muri byo: amategeko mpanabyaha, amategeko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga, amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara, amategeko mpuzahanga yerekeye uburenganzira bwa muntu;
  • Kuba bafite nibura imyaka irindwi y’uburambe mu kazi nk’abacamanza, abashinjacyaha, abavoka cyangwa mu yindi mirimo isa nk’iyo mu rwego rw’imanza nshinjabyaha; no
  • Kumenyesha MICT ko bifuza gushingwa imirimo yo kunganira umuntu wese udashoboye kwihembera avoka kandi ufunzwe ku itegeko rya MICT, kandi ko biteguye kuyikora, hakurikijwe ibiteganywa n’amabwiriza.

Avoka w’agateganyo agomba kuzuza ibisabwa bikurikira byiyongera ku biteganywa n’Ingingo ya 42 n’iya 43(B) (risiti y’abavoka b’agateganyo):

  • Agomba kuba atuye ahantu umuntu ashyize mu gaciro yabona ko atari kure ya gereza y’Ishami rya MICT bireba; kandi
  • Agomba kugaragaza ko yiteguye kujya kuri gereza y’Ishami rya MICT ry’aho ari cyangwa kunganira uregwa aramutse ahamagajwe n’abacamanza.

Gusaba kunganira uregwa muri MICT (Gushyirwa kuri risiti iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43)

Abifuza kuba abavoka cyangwa abavoka b’agateganyo b’abaregwa cyangwa b’abakekwaho icyaha badafite ubushobozi bwo kubihembera bagomba kugeza kuri Gerefiye inyandiko zikurikira:

  • Ifishi yujujwe yo gusaba gushyirwa kuri risiti iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43;
  • Ibaruwa usaba avugamo ko ashaka kandi yiteguye kugirwa avoka w’abaregwa/abakekwaho icyaha badafite ubushobozi bwo kwihembera avoka, akanasabamo gushyirwa kuri risiti  iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43;
  • Umwirondoro we mu buryo burambuye, urimo n’amakuru ya vuba, uvuga kandi ku byo umukandida akora muri icyo gihe yandika, byashoboka hakaba harimo amakuru arebana n’abakoresha be ba kera n’aba vuba n’aho babarizwa. Uwo mwirondoro we ugomba kandi kugaragaza neza niba umukandida afite imyaka irindwi y’uburambe mu kazi isabwa, nk’umucamanza, avoka cyangwa mu yindi mirimo isa nk’iyo mu rwego rw’imanza nshinjabyaha;
  • Urwandiko rugaragaza ko afite ubushobozi mu kazi rwatanzwe n’urwego rw’umurimo rubifitiye ububasha, harimo n’inyandiko ya vuba igaragaza ko yitwaye neza mu kazi ke, ikanavuga ku bihano bya disipuline yaba arimo cyangwa yaba yarigeze guhabwa;
  • Inyandiko igaragaza ko umukandida atigeze ahamwa n’icyaha mu manza nshinjabyaha (icyemezo gitangwa n’inzego z’ubuyobozi bw’’igihugu zibifitiye ububasha kgaragaza ko atigeze akatirwa n’inkiko mu manza nshinjabyaha);
  • Amazina y’abantu babiri, bamuzi neza n’aho babarizwa, bakora akazi mu by’amategeko mpanabyaha, amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara, amategeko mpuzamahanga yerekeye uburenganzira bwa muntu cyangwa amategeko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga, kandi bafite ubushobozi bwo kugira Gerefiye inama niba uwo mukandida afite ubushobozi mu kazi mu mategeko amaze kuvugwa;
  • Abakandida batavuga icyongereza cyangwa igifaransa nk’indimi za kavukire, bagomba kugaragaza icyemezo cy’ishuri ryigisha indimi cyangwa indi gihamya yemeza ko bazi neza icyongereza cyangwa igifaransa ***;
  • Andi makuru yose umukandida abona ko afite akamaro.

Icyitonderwa: Muri rusange Gerefiye asaba inyandiko z’umwimerere cyangwa kopi zemejwe ko zihuye n’umwimerere zirimo amakuru arebana n’umukandida harimo n’aya vuba. Kopi z’inyandiko zishobora koherezwa kuri imeyiri mbere yo gutanga iz’umwimerere, biramutse ari ngombwa. Amabaruwa asaba akazi arimo inyandiko z’umwimerere cyangwa kopi zemejwe ko zihuye n’umwimerere bigomba koherezwa mu ibaruwa ishinganye ahantu hakurikira hifashishijijwe iposita cyangwa sosiyete zikora umurimo wo gutwara ibintu harimo n’amabaruwa:

Ishami rya Arusha Ishami rya La Haye

Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals
Haki Road, Plot No. 486 Block A, Lakilaki Area
Arumeru District
P.O. Box 6016, Arusha, Tanzania

Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals
Churchillplein 1
2517 JW, The Hague, The Netherlands

Ishyirwaho ry’avoka n’ubufasha mu by’amategeko

Abantu barezwe bagaragaza ko badashobora kwihembera abavoka, amafaranga yose cyangwa igice cyayo, bafite uburenganzira bwo guhabwa abavoka bahembwa na MICT. Mbere y’uko abavoka bemererwa kuburanira abarezwe badashobora kubihembera cyangwa bashobora kubahemba gusa igice kimwe cy’amafaranga asabwa, bagomba kubanza gushyirwa kuri risiti iteganywa mu Ngingo ya 43 yavuzweho haruguru. Byongeye kandi, MICT igenera abakozi bafasha abavoka bashyizweho imishahara ihagije. Iyo uregwa ashobora guhemba avoka igice kimwe cy’amafaranga amugomba, MICT itanga gusa igice cy’amafaranga y’ubwunganizi uregwa adashobora kubona.

MICT yashyizeho ubufasha mu by’amategeko bugendera kandi bwubakira ku mikorere na poritike zagenderwagaho na TPIR na TPIY. Ku itariki ya 4 Werurwe 2013, MICT yemeje poritike yayo ya mbere irebana n’ubufasha mu by’amategeko: «Poritike yo guhemba abantu baburanira abaregwa badafite ubushobozi bwo kubihembera mu manza z’ubujurire ziburanishwa muri MICT», ishingiye ku mafaranga y’umubumbe kandi igateganya guhembera abavoka bunganira abaregwa umurimo ushyize mu gaciro kandi wa ngombwa bakoreye umuntu uburana mu bujurire udafite ubushobozi bwo kubihembera, cyangwa ushobora kubahemba igice cy’umushahara wabo gusa.

Kwiburanira

Nk’uko bitenganywa n’Ingingo ya 19(4)(d) ya Sitati, umuntu warezwe ashobora guhitamo kwiburanira. Iyo Urugereko ruburanisha urubanza rwemera uburenganzira bw’uregwa bwo kwiburanira kandi rukamwemerera kubikora, MICT (binyujijwe kuri Gerefiye) ikora ku buryo uregwa ahabwa ibyangombwa byose kugira ngo ashobore gukoresha bya nyabyo ubwo burenganzira bwe.

Byongeye kandi, Gerefiye yemeje «Uburyo bwo guhemba abantu bafasha abaregwa biburanira badafite ubushobozi  bwo guhemba abavoka». Ubwo buryo bwo guhemba bushingiye ku bukemuramanza bwa TPIY na TPIR, harimo n’Icyemezo cy’Urugereko rw’Ubujurire rwa TPIY cyo ku itariki ya 11 Nzeri 2007 mu rubanza rwa Krajišnik, rwemejemo ko uregwa udafite ubushobozi bwo  kwihembera abavoka iyo ahisemo gukoresha uburenganzira bwe bwo kwiburanira, ashobora guhabwa amafaranga ahembwa abafasha be mu by’amategeko. Hashingiwe kuri iyi poritike yo guhemba, Gerefiye ashobora gushyiraho abajyanama mu by’amategeko n’abantu bo kumufasha nk’abakozi bacunga dosiye y’urubanza, abapererezi n’abafasha mu by’indimi. Abo bose bashinzwe gufasha uregwa wiburanira gutegura urubanza rwe no kumworohereza umurimo wo kuruburana. Byongeye kandi, Gerefiye ashobora gushyiraho impuguke mu gihe ubumenyi bw’impuguke ari ngombwa, kwemera ko uregwa avugana mu ibanga na bamwe mu bagize ikipe y’ubwunganizi, kandi akagenera ibiro n’ibikoresho ikipe y’ubwunganizi y’uregwa.

Amategeko yerekeye imyitwarire mu kazi n’ibihano

Amategeko yerekeye imyitwarire mu kazi ateganya ibigomba kurebwa kugira ngo abavoka bunganira abaregwa baburanira muri MICT bagaragaze imyitwarire y’indakemwa mu kazi. Aya mategeko ateganya ibihano bikarishye kugira ngo buri avoka yubahirize ibisabwa birebana n’ubunyamwuga, ubushobozi, umurava n’ubunyangamugayo. Avoka witwaye nabi mu kazi ashobora guhanishwa kwihanangirizwa, gucibwa amande, guhagarikwa by’igihe gito cyangwa kubuzwa burundu kongera kuburanira muri MICT.

Ishyirahamwe ry’Abavoka bunganira abaregwa (ADC) muri MICT

Abavoka baburanira abaregwa muri MICT bahagarariwe na ADC-ICTY, ishyirahamwe ry’abavoka baburanira abaregwa muri TPIY kuva muri Nzeri 2002.

ADC-ICTY, isigaye ubu ari ishyirahamwe ry’abavoka bunganira abaregwa muri TPIY kandi ihagarariye abavoka baburanira muri MICT, yemewe by’agateganyo mu Ukuboza 2012, hanyuma iza kwemerwa ku mugaragaro muri Kanama 2015 nk’ishyirahamwe ry’abavoka bunganira abaregwa muri MICT.

Intego y’iryo shyirahamwe, ritagendera ku mabwiriza ya MICT, ni uguha abaregwa ubwunganizi buboneye bwo mu rwego rwo hejuru no kuvugira abavoka bose baburanira muri MICT mu gihe rishyikirana n’inzego zitandukanye za MICT. Iryo shyirahamwe rifite kandi uruhare mu rwego rw’Amategeko yerekeye Imyitwarire y’Abavoka baburanira muri MICT.

Urubuga rwa interineti rw’Ishyirahamwe ry’Abavoka b’Ubwunganizi


* Iyo Gerefiye asanze ari ngombwa kubera inyungu z’ubutabera, ashobora gukuraho ibyo bisabwa, nk’uko biteganywa n’Ingingo ya 42(B) y’Amategeko n’Ingingo ya 14(C) y’Amabwiriza. Abavoka bemerewe kunganira abaregwa badasabwe kuba bazi neza indimi zisabwa bashobora gusa kugirwa abavoka bungirije, hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 16(D) y’Amabwiriza.

** Nk’uko bivugwa mu Cyemezo cya Gerefiye cyo ku itariki ya 24 Kanama 2015, Ishyirahamwe ry’Abavoka bunganira abaregwa baburanira abantu muri TPIY (ADC-ICTY) ryemewe nk’ishyirahamwe ry’abavoka baburanira abantu muri MICT.

*** Icyitonderwa: Hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 15(A)(ii) y’Amabwiriza Yerekeye Ishyirwaho ry’Abavoka Bunganira Abaregwa, Gerefiye ashobora guha abo bakandida ikizamini kugira ngo bagaragaze ubumenyi bwabo bw’indimi. Byongeye kandi, ku birebana n’ikizamini cyo kwandika no kuvuga kigomba gukorwa kugira ngo Gerefiye amenye niba abakandida bazi neza rumwe mu ndimi zikoreshwa n’Urukiko, umuntu utujuje ibisabwa hano ariko akaba avuga rumwe mu ndimi z’igihugu Urukiko rufiteho ububasha, kandi akaba yujuje ibindi byose bisabwa hano, ashobora gushyirwa kuri risiti, Gerefiye aramutse asanze ari ngombwa (biteganywa mu Ngingo ya 14(C) y’Amabwiriza). Cyakora, avoka nk’uyu ashobora gusa kugirwa avoka wungirije hashingiwe ku Ngingo ya 16(D)(ii) y’Amabwiriza.