Perezida

Umucamanza Theodor Meron (Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika)

Perezida w’Urwego rw’Inkiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga kuva ku itariki ya 1 Werurwe 2012.

Yavukiye i Kalisz, Polonye, ku itariki ya 28 Mata 1930.

Umucamanza Theodor Meron yabanje kugirwa Perezida wa MICT n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye guhera ku itariki ya 1 Werurwe 2012, hanyuma yongererwa manda nshya ku mwanya wa Perezida guhera ku itariki ya 1 Werurwe 2016. Hagati y’itariki ya 17 Ugushyingo 2013 n’iya 16 Ugushyingo 2015, Umucamanza Meron yari muri manda ye ya kane nka Perezida w’Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho icyahoze ari Yugosilaviya (TPIY) ari na ko abifatanya  n’imirimo yo kuba Perezida wa MICT. Mbere yaho, hagati y’umwaka wa 2003 n’uwa 2005 no hagati y’umwaka wa 2011 na 2013, yabaye Perezida wa TPIY.

Nyuma yo gutorwa n’Inteko Rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kuba Umucamanza wa TPIY muri Werurwe 2001, Umucamanza Meron, ufite ubwenegihugu bwo muri Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, yakoze nk’Umucamanza mu Rugereko rw’Ubujurire rw’Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho Icyahoze ari Yugosilaviya (TPIY) n’Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda (TPIR). Umucamanza Meron ni umuhanga uri ku isonga ry’ubumenyi mu bijyanye n’amategeko arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara, mu by’uburenganzira bwa muntu no mu mategeko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga. Bimwe mu bitabo n’inyandiko yasohoye byabereye Inkiko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga umusingi mu by’amategeko. Mu makoraniro atandukanye, yagize uruhare mu iterambere ry’amategeko mpuzamahanga, by’umwihariko mu mategeko mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara n’amategeko mpanabyaha. Nk’umuntu ukunda cyane umwanditsi Shakespeare, yanditse inyandiko n’ibitabo ku mategeko y’intambara n’ubushovariye bigaragara mu makinamico Shakespeare yanditse ashingiye ku mateka. .

Umucamanza Meron yize amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Yeruzalemu, iya Harvard (aho yaboneye impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga), no mu ya Cambridge. Yimukiye muri Reta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu mwaka wa 1978. Mu mwaka wa 1978, yabaye Porofeseri w’Amagateko Mpuzamahanga, hanyuma, mu wa 1994, aba Porofeseri wo mu rwego rwo hejuru mu Ishuri ry’Amategeko ryo muri Kaminuza ya New York mu mwanya witiriwe Charles L. Denison (Charles L. Denison Chair at New York University School of Law). Hagati y’umwaka wa 1991 n’uwa 1995 yabaye Porofeseri w’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga muri Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies i Jeneve, kandi yigishije Amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Harvard n’iya California (Berkeley) nka Porofeseri wazaga aturutse hanze. Mu mwaka wa 2006, yagizwe Porofeseri w’indashyikirwa mu mwanya witiriwe Charles L. Denison aba n’umushakashatsi mu by’ubutabera mu Ishuri ry’Amategeko ryo muri Kaminuza ya New York.

Mu mwaka wa 1990, Umucamanza Meron yaserukiye rubanda ari mu Ntumwa za Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika zagiye i Copenhagen mu nama ya Komisiyo ku Mutekano no ku Bufatanye mu Burayi yigaga ku bibazo birebana n’abantu (CSCE). Mu mwaka wa 1998, yari mu ntumwa za Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika mu Nama y’i Roma yo gushyiraho Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga (CPI), ayigiramo uruhare mu kwandika ingingo zirebana n’ibyaha, harimo ibyaha by’intambara n’ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu. Yakoze kandi muri Komisiyo yateguraga ishyirwaho rya CPI, afite by’umwihariko inshingano yo gusobanura icyaha cyo kugaba igitero ku kindi gihugu. Yabaye avoka wa Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika mu Rukiko Mpuzamahanga rw’Ubutabera, hanyuma hagati y’umwaka wa 2000 n’uwa 2001 aba Umujyanama mu Mategeko Mpuzamahanga muri Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya Reta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Umucamanza Meron yakoze kandi muri za komite zitandukanye z’impuguke za Komite Mpuzamahanga ya Croix Rouge (CICR), harimo ishinzwe iby’ubushyamirane bw’imberemu gihugu , iy’ibidukikije n’intambara hamwe n’iyerekeye kugira uruhare rutaziguye mu mirwano biteganywa mu mategeko arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara.

Byongeye kandi, yabaye muri komite nyobozi y’impuguke za CICR yari ishinzwe kwiga ku Ngingo z’umuco karande z’Amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara. Yabaye kandi muri za komite ngishwanama cyangwa z’ubutegetsi mu miryango myinshi yita ku burenganzira bwa muntu, harimo Americas Watch n’Ishyirahamwe mpuzamahanga riharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu. Yabaye kandi umwe mu bagize komite y’ibihangange yashyizweho mu rwego rw’igitekerezo cyatanzwe n’u Busuwisi cyo kwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 60 y’Itangazo mpuzamahanga ryerekeye uburenganzira bwa muntu, iyo komite ikaba yarigaga ku cyerekezo uburenganzira bwa muntu bugomba gufata.

Umucamanza Meron yabaye umwe mu banditsi bakuru ba American Journal of International Law (1993-98), ubu akaba ari umwanditsi wayo w’icyubahiro. Umucamanza Meron ni umwe mu banyamuryango b’Ikigo cy’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga (Institute of International Law); ni umwe mu bagize inama y’abanditsi b’Igitabo Ngarukamwaka cy’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara (Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law); ni umwe mu bagize Inama Ishinzwe Ububanyi n’Amahanga (Council on Foreign Relations), ari mu Muryango w’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga mu Bufaransa (French Society of International Law), mu Ishami ryo muri Amerika ry’Umuryango w’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga, no mu Rugaga rw’abavoka rwa Reta ya New York. Ni n’umushakashatsi muri American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Umucamanza Meron ni umugiraneza ufasha Umuryango Nyamerika w’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga (American Society of International Law) kandi yabaye Perezida wawo w’icyubahiro .

Umucamanza Meron yabaye umwarimu muri Akademi y’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga y’i Lahe (The Hague Academy of International Law) muri gahunda ifashwa na Carnegie, umushakashatsi muri Fondasiyo Rockefeller, umushakashatsi mu Kigo cya Max Planck (Heidelberg), umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Cambridge mu rwego rwo kwibuka Sir Hersch Lauterpacht, n’umwarimu uza aturutse hanze mu Ishuri rya All Souls, Oxford. Mu mwaka wa 2003 Umucamanza Meron yigishije isomo rusange ku Mategeko mpuzamahanga agenga imibanire y’ibihugu n’imiryango mpuzamahanga muri Akademi y’amategeko mpuzamahanga y’i Lahe. Mu mwaka wa 2008, mu rwego rwa gahunda yitiriwe Marek Nowicki, yigishije i Budapest na Varsovie atumiwe na Open Society Institute. Yigisha muri Kaminuza ya Oxford isomo ngarukamwaka ry’umwaka wa 2014 ku Butabera rusange ku issi. Yigishije muri za kaminuza nyinshi no mu Kigo Mpuzamahanga cy’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (Strasbourg). Byongeye kandi, Umucamanza Meron yafashije gutangiza amahugurwa agenewe abarimu ba kaminuza bigisha amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara yateguwe na CICR/Ikigo cyitwa Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Yigisha kenshi mu mahugurwa ya CICR; yatangije kandi akomeje kuyobora mu gihe kigera ku myaka 30 amahugurwa ngarukamwaka ya CICR ku mategeko arengera abantu mu gihe cy’intambara agenerwa abadipolomate b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye muri Kaminuza ya New York.

Mu mwaka wa 2005, Umucamanza Meron yahawe n’Urugaga Mpuzamahanga rw’Abavoka igihembo cyiswe Rule of Law Award. Mu mwaka wa 2006, Umuryango Nyamerika w’Amategeko Mpuzamahanga wamuhaye umudari witiriwe Manley O. Hudson (Manley O. Hudson Medal of American Society of International Law). Mu mwaka wa 2007, yagizwe Officer of the Legion of Honor na Perezida w’u Bufaransa, naho mu mwaka wa 2013 agirwa Grand Officer of the National Order of Merit. Ishyirahamwe ryitwa American Council of Learned Societies ryamuhawe igihembo cyitiriwe Charles Homer Haskins cy’umwaka wa 2008. Mu mwaka wa 2009 yatorewe kuba umwe mu bagize American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mu mwaka wa 2011 yahawe impamyabumenyi y’icyubahiro (honoris causa) na Kaminuza ya Varsovie.

Umucamanza Meron yandika kenshi muri American Journal of International Law no mu binyamakuru byandikwamo ibintu birebana n’amategeko. Yanditse inyandiko zigera ku 100 mu binyamakuru bisohora inyandiko zirebana n’amategeko. Yanditse ibitabo bikurikira: Investment Insurance in International Law (Oceana-Sijthoff 1976); The United Nations Secretariat (Lexington Books 1977); Human Rights in International Law (Oxford University Press 1984); Human Rights Law-Making in the United Nations (Oxford University Press 1986) (American Society of International Law yamuhaye icyemezo cy’ishimwe kuri icyo gitabo); Human Rights in Internal Strife: Their International Protection (Sir Hersch Lauterpacht Memorial Lectures, Grotius Publications 1987); Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (Oxford University Press 1989); Henry’s Wars and Shakespeare’s Laws (Oxford University Press 1993); Bloody Constraint: War and Chivalry in Shakespeare (Oxford University Press 1998); War Crimes Law Comes of Age: Essays (Oxford University Press 1998); International Law In the Age of Human Rights(Martinus Nijhoff 2004); The Humanization of International Law (Martinus Nijhoff 2006); na The Making of International Criminal Justice: The View from the Bench: Selected Speeches (Oxford University Press 2011). Ni umwe mu banditsi ba Humanizing the Laws of War: Selected Writings of Richard Baxter (Oxford University Press 2013).